Americans pay the highest prices in the world for cancer drugs Nike Shox Scontate , but the treatments are least affordable in lower income countries, according to the results of a new study released on Monday.
The study of cancer drug prices in seven countries, which did not take into account discounts or rebates to list prices, was presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.
The lowest drug prices were found in India and South Africa. But after calculating price as a percentage of wealth adjusted for the cost of living, cancer drugs appeared to be least affordable in India and China.
Researchers at Rabin Medical Center in Petah-Tikvah, Israel, calculated monthly drug doses for 15 generic and eight brand-name cancer drugs used to treat a wide range of cancer types and stages. List prices in Australia Nike Vapormax Off White Scontate , China, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Israel, and the United States were obtained from government websites.
The high prices commanded by modern cancer drugs are generating increased resistance and demands for price discounts from politicians, health care providers Nike Air Jordan 1 Off White Scontate , insurers, patients and some doctors.
Drug companies argue that they need to make a profit to pay for the billions of dollars needed for drug research. Many companies also have extensive low-cost or free access schemes for patients who cannot afford their medicines.
The study researchers used gross domestic product and cost of living statistics from the International Monetary Fund to estimate drug price affordability.
Median monthly prices for branded drugs ranged from $1,515 in India to $8,694 in the United States. For generics, median prices were highest in the United States, at $654, and lowest in South Africa Nike Air Max 97 Off White Scontate , $120, and India, $159.
In terms of ability to pay, the study found cancer drugs to be most affordable in Australia, where generic drugs were priced at 3 percent of "domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity" and patented drugs were 71 percent of the same measure.
In China, the study found generic drug prices were 48 percent and patented drugs were 288 percent of wealth adjusted for the cost of living.
In India, the cost of generics was 33 percent of that measure Nike Blazer Off White Scontate , while patented drugs were 313 percent.
In the United States, generics were found to be priced at 14 percent of wealth adjusted for the cost of living, and patented cancer drugs were 192 percent of the same measure.
The study did not take into account that drug costs are paid by either the government, health insurers, or patients themselves, depending on each country's health insurance system.
Worldwide spending on cancer medicines will exceed $150 billion by 2020, driven by the emergence of expensive new therapies that help the immune system to attack tumors Nike Air Force 1 Off White Scontate , according to a forecast earlier this year from IMS Health Holdings.
Confiscated ivory products are displayed before they are destroyed in Beijing on May 29, 2015. Photo: CFP
The Chinese government has promised to do more to eradicate the ivory trade, even bringing in a temporary ban, after receiving international pressure. However, because many companies already have large stockpiles and ivory carving has long been a tradition in China, it'll be some time before ivory disappears from the market.
In March this year, China's State Forestry Administration put its tightest restrictions ever on the ivory industry Nike Air Max 90 Off White Scontate , temporarily banning the import of all ivory products.
China has long been in the spotlight when it comes to the ivory business, with the rapidly expanding middle class's demand for ivory contributing to the global trade, both legal and illegal.
As awareness increases of the need to protect wildlife and the destruction that ivory poaching wreaks on animal populations, there has been more and more pressure on the Chinese government to act.
Previously, in order to protect African elephants, one of the species most affected by poaching, the State Forestry Administration released in 2015 year-long bans on importing ivory carvings made after the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) became effective Nike Off White Scontate , as well as banning ivory trophies.
President Xi Jinping and US President Barack Obama both promised to take steps to stop all ivory imports and exports to and from their countries, in addition to bringing an end to domestic ivory trades, during Xi's visit to the US in September last year.
In recent years, there has been more and more focus on the Chinese market for ivory and this has led to the government being put under a lot of pressure, said Zhou Fei, head of TRAFFIC China programme, a wildlife trade monitoring network under WWF.
"China is actively pushing the 'One Belt and One Road' initiative and has cooperation with many African countries … it's clear that the Chinese government doesn't want this cooperation to be disturbed by issues around ivory Nike Air Max 270 Scontate ," Zhou said.
China joined CITES in 1980. At that time, Chinese ivory companies had around 80 tons of ivory in storage between them. After 20 years of consumption, in 2005 ivory carving and trading companies found they had little left to work with and started lobbying the government to help them get hold of ivory.
In 2008, CITES permitted China to take part in a legal ivory auction and 62 tons of ivory were bought. Right now there are 33 legal production enterprises, such as ivory carving firms, and there are 130 companies that sell ivory products.
But experts say the legal ivory trade or quotas that allows certain companies to obtain and sell set quantities of ivory products do not keep the trade small and under control, like many had hoped. Instead Nike Air Max 360 Scontate , they have driven black market sales skyward.
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